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What causes dysplasia?

Cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer are probably sexually transmitted diseases. It appears that a virus, human papilloma virus, leads to cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the same virus that causes genital warts (condyloma) and is sexually transmitted.

Early sexual activity and many sexual partners make it more likely that you will get HPV. Smoking is also a risk factor for cervical dysplasia. No one knows how cigarette smoking leads to dysplasia or cancer, but the chemicals in cigarette smoke tend to build up in the cervix over time.